Specificity is a core basic principle in activity science. It is the degree of association between training and performance results.1 If you are a powerlifter this indicates that the teaching you do really should be concentrated at acquiring you much better at squatting, benching, and deadlifting. But this is exactly where the disconnect takes place with coaches in between the basic principle and its application.
Specificity exists on a spectrum—100% specificity as a powerlifter indicates your teaching would consist solely of competing in precise meets. However, no one particular does this and for apparent reasons.
So, a fewer specific but additional acceptable software of the basic principle is to do the level of competition lifts or a near variation more regularly at submaximal hundreds with a progressive composition that guides the application.
This is the distinction involving specificity and transference. Particular teaching generally has the highest transference. Particular person circumstances may possibly impact the application of specificity resulting in a less certain tactic yielding far better general performance metrics.
Specificity Would not Exist In a Vacuum
The principal point in this article is that specificity does not exist in a vacuum, and the interaction involving specificity and other variables like tiredness management, injuries, variation, and overload want to be regarded as when developing a software. Let us go just one step further more and seem at eventualities the place a lot less specific instruction protocols would actually produce a greater transference to sporting activities effectiveness.
Just one this kind of example is injury. I had tendonitis in each knees which brought about a whole lot of suffering although squatting. Unsurprisingly, this impeded my efficiency and my outcomes experienced. The protocol I selected to correct this was substantial volume eccentric leg extensions to fortify the tendons.2 This worked extremely properly and taken out the soreness as properly as any apprehension indicators so I could squat unimpeded. My overall performance enhanced instantly as did my end result at the stop of my cycle.
Leg extension did not boost my force output, they merely eliminated an obstruction that permitted me to accumulate far more overloading periods of increased good quality which designed me more robust. Less unique, but it allowed for a better transference to sporting activities functionality.
Assuming an athlete requirements to gain 20lb to fill out his ideal excess weight course his training would necessarily be considerably less certain.
It might involve more time hypertrophy blocks and even mirror a slight desire to hypertrophy in the course of the energy phases. If you took a snapshot of this athlete’s system, it would seem to be a lot less distinct. In fact, had he finished significantly less hypertrophy it’s doable he may well have experienced a a little much better strength consequence at the end of a single teaching cycle.
Even so, when you extend this timeline out a number of several years, the athlete develops a great deal extra energy as a direct outcome of increased muscle cross-sectional space. His new muscle has also extended his strength possible outside of what he could have achieved at his previous body weight.3
Exercising variation can lessen staleness of a plan and strengthen the athlete’s need to train. Variation is also a significant facet of fatigue management and prevention of overuse injuries.4 A single type of variation is training alteration—changing grip width, squat stance, undertaking floor press alternatively of opposition bench press, etc.
Generate Your Greatest Lengthy Term Effects
Now, I want to be apparent, I’m not diminishing the theory of specificity. Nor am I expressing that simply because there are situations exactly where much less specific schooling yields greater final results then the theory of specificity is wrong.
In the illustrations above (which are genuine circumstance studies) higher specificity would have generated a lesser transference to general performance outcomes. This is an software problem, not an challenge with the principle alone. Your ability as an athlete to transfer up and down the spectrum of specificity primarily based on what will yield the ideal long term outcomes is a vital skill that need to be formulated over time.
Keep away from abnormal rigidity in your knowledge of these essential principles. This will aid you apply them more effectively in your have teaching and in the long run make better benefits.
1. William B. McCafferty & Steven M. Horvath (1977) “Specificity of Workout and Specificity of Instruction: A Subcellular Assessment.” Investigate Quarterly. American Alliance for Overall health, Bodily Education and Recreation, 48:2, 358-371, DOI: 10.1080/10671315.1977.10615433.
2. Öhberg L, Lorentzon R, Alfredson H, “Eccentric instruction in people with persistent Achilles tendinosis: normalised tendon structure and decreased thickness at observe up.” British Journal of Sports Medicine 200438:8-11.
3. Higbie, Elizabeth J., Kirk J. Cureton, Gordon L. Warren, and Barry M. Prior. “Effects of Concentric and Eccentric Instruction on Muscle Energy, Cross-sectional Place, and Neural Activation.” Journal of Applied Physiology 81, no. 5 (1996): 2173-181. doi:10.1152/jappl.19184.108.40.2063.
4. Renström, Per, and Robert J. Johnson. “Overuse Injuries in Sporting activities A Review.” Sports activities Medication 2, no. 5 (1985): 316-33. doi:10.2165/00007256-198502050-00002.?